From 1943 to 1945 New Zealand forces fought alongside British and American troops in Italy. It was a very different kind of war from the North African campaign of 1940 - 43. The free-wheeling tactics of the desert were replaced by the closer fighting required to master buildings, roads, farms and rivers. New Zealand's campaign pivoted around Cassino, the central Italian village that offered such stubborn resistance in early 1944. More than five decades on, debate still rages over the decisions made by the New Zealand commander, Lieutenant-General Sir Bernard Freyberg. Yet the truths can be uncovered, and one of the aims of this book is to take a fresh look at what happened.